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Author Guidelines

Manuscript Preparation Guidelines

Manuscript Types

The manuscript should be submitted in the following order:

  • Original Manuscript (word limit – 5000 words): Title, Author(s) & affiliations, Corresponding author details, Abstract, Keywords, Abbreviations, Introduction, Materials and methods, Results and discussion, Conclusion, References
  • Review Manuscript (word limit – 5000 words): Title, Author(s) & affiliations, Corresponding author details, Abstract, Keywords, Abbreviations, Introduction, Sub headings and sub-sub headings, Conclusion, References
  • Mini Review (word limit – 2000 words): Title, Author(s) & affiliations, Corresponding author details, Abstract, Keywords, Abbreviations, Introduction, Sub headings and sub-sub headings, Conclusion, References
  • Case Report (word limit – 1500 words): Title, Author(s) & affiliations, Corresponding author details, Abstract, Keywords, Case Presentation, Discussion/Conclusion, References
  • Short Communication (word limit – 2000 words): Title, Author(s) & affiliations, Corresponding author details, Abstract; Keywords; Abbreviations, Text description, Conclusion, References
  • Editorial (word limit – 1500 words): Title, Author(s) & affiliations, Corresponding author details, Text description, References
  • Letters (word limit – 1000 words): Title, Author(s) & affiliations, Corresponding author details, Text description, References


  • Title page
  • Abstract, or a summary for case reports (Note: references should not be included in abstracts or summaries).
  • Main text separated under appropriate headings and subheadings using the following hierarchy: Bold title case, Bold sentence case, Bold Italics.
  • Tables should be in Word format only and placed in the main text where the table is first cited and tables must be cited in the main text in numerical order.
  • Acknowledgments, Competing Interests, Funding and all other required statements. Reference list.
  • Images must be uploaded as separate files. All images must be cited within the main text in numerical order and legends should be provided at the end of the manuscript.
  • Appendices should be uploaded using the File Designation "Supplementary File" and cited in the main text.
  • Please remove any hidden text headers or footers from your file before submission.


Manuscript Preparation

Font Styles and Other Formatting Details:


1. Title: Times New Roman, 15 Bold, Title Case, Centralized alignment
The word limit for title is 25 and it should not contain any abbreviations and should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper.

1. Author(s): Times New Roman, 11 Bold, Justified

Author names need to be mentioned as Last name followed by their concern Initials without space or any punctuation.In case of more than one author has participated in the submitted work then names should be differentiated by comma (,) and 'and' in between the last two. Their affiliations are numbered after the initials in superscript and Corresponding author is represented with a superscript Asterisk.

E.g., Anderson JE1*, Mathews AK2 and Smith ES3

1. Affiliations: Times New Roman, 10 Normal, Justified

Author Affiliations must be provided as: Department, University, Country, E-mail:

E.g., Anderson JE1*, Mathews AK2M and Smith ES3
1Department of Science, ABC University, USA, E-mail: anderson@abcuniversity.edu
2Department of Science, DEF University, USA, E-mail: mathews@defuniversity.edu
3Department of Science, GHI University, USA, E-mail: smithe@ghiuniversity.edu

1. *Corresponding author: Times New Roman, 10 Normal, and Justified

Last name followed by Initials, Department, University, Complete Postal Address, Country, Telephone details; Fax No.; E-mail:

E.g., *Corresponding author: Anderson JE, Department of Science, ABC University, Peter's St, Camden, NJ 123456, USA, Tel: 0123456789; Fax: 98766543210; E-mail: anderson@abcuniversity.edu

1. Headings: Times New Roman, 11 Bold, and Justified
  • Abstract: Word limit – 250-300 words. The Abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. It should not contain the references.
  • Keywords: Important keywords that were used in the manuscript should be mentioned here and they should be separated with semicolon (;)


E.g., Hi; Hello; How are you

  • Abbreviations: The abbreviations must be elaborated here and should be separated by semicolon (;)
    E.g., ABC: Alternative Bilateral Command; DEF: Database Entry Found
  • Equations and Formulas: For mathematical symbols, Greek letters and other special characters, use normal text or Symbol font. MathType is used only for formulae that cannot be produced using normal text or Symbol font.

Subheadings or Sub-sub headings: Times New Roman, 10 Bold, and Justified

Spacing: Indentation after/before: 0; Spacing after/before: 0, 1.5 line Spacing

References: Gratis Open Access Publishers follows author-number system (Vancouver Style) where all the references including URLs are numbered successively within square brackets, in the same order of their appearance in the text.

Citation for References


Reference citations in the text should be identified by numbers in square brackets. Some examples:
  • Negotiation research spans many disciplines [3].
  • This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman [5].
  • This effect has been widely studied [1-3, 7].


References List



The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.

The entries in the list should be numbered consecutively.

  • Journal article
    Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
  • Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of "et al" in long author lists will also be accepted:
    Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329
  • Article by DOI
    Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086
  • Book
    South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
  • Book chapter
    Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257
  • Online document
    Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007
  • Dissertation
    Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California
  • Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal's name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see
  • org LTWA
    If you are unsure, please use the full journal title.

    For authors using EndNote, Springer provides an output style that supports the formatting of in-text citations and reference list.
  • EndNote style (zip, 2 kB)
    Authors preparing their manuscript in LaTeX can use the bibtex file spbasic.bst which is included in Springer's LaTeX macro package.
  • Springer's LaTeX macro package.
  • Tables

    • All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
    • Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
    • For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
    • Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
    • Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.